William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (4 Mei 1564 – 3 Mei 1616 mengikut takwim Gregory) ialah seorang penulis bahasa Inggeris yang teragung, pengarang kesusasteraan Barat yang amat terkenal serta penulis drama yang terkemuka di dunia.

Shakespeare merupakan salah satu daripada cuma beberapa penulis drama yang mahir dalam kedua-dua genre, yaitu drama tragedi dan komedi. Dramanya menggabungkan daya penarik popular dengan pembawaan watak yang kompleks, ketersergaman yang indah, dan falsafah yang mendalam.

Shakespeare mengarang 38 drama, termasuk beberapa drama kecil yang mungkin dikarang bersama orang lain, serta 154 puisi soneta dan tiga atau empat puisi panjang. Beliau dipercayai menghasilkan kebanyakan daripada karyanya antara 1586 dan 1616. Zaman Pembaharuan British sering kali dikenali sebagai “Tempoh Shakespeare”.

Karya Shakespeare kini diterjemahkan dalam setiap bahasa utama, dan dramanya masih dipersembahkan di seluruh dunia. Tambahan pula, petikan daripada dramanya telah menjadi penggunaan harian dalam banyak bahasa.

Drama
Sebagaimana yang biasa untuk zaman itu, kebanyakan daripada drama Shakespeare berdasarkan karya penulis drama lain, cerita lama yang diguna semula serta bahan-bahan sejarah. Drama Shakespeare boleh dibahagikan secara kasar kepada tiga kumpulan stilistik:

Drama-drama pada tempo awalnya yang cenderung lebih riang: Mimpi di Suatu Malam Pertengahan Musim Panas (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), Henry IV, Bahagian 1, dll;
Drama-drama pada tempoh pertengahan yang cenderung mencurigakan dan mengajukan persoalan-persoalan seperti pengkhianatan, pembunuhan, hawa nafsu, kuasa dan keakuan: Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet, Raja Lear, dll;
Drama-drama pada tempo akhirnya yang mencirikan plot yang bertamat dengan kegembiraan dan yang menggunakan kuasa ajaib serta unsur-unsur lain yang luar biasa: Kisah Musim Sejuk (The Winter’s Tale), Ribut Kencang (The Tempest), dll;
 
Imej Shakespeare daripada Folio Pertama (1623) yang merupakan edisi koleksi yang sulung bagi dramanya.Bagaimanapun, sempadan antara kumpulan-kumpulan tersebut tidaklah terang.

Walaupun beberapa drama Shakespeare telah dicetakkan dalam siri kuarto, kebanyakannya tidak diterbitkan sehingga 1623 sewaktu Folio Pertama diterbitkan oleh dua pelakon, John Hemings dan William Condell. Oleh sebab Shakespeare tidak menghasilkan drama versi bercetak, masalah teks tertimbul dan termunculnya pelbagai versi bagi kebanyakan dramanya. Tambahan pula, ketiadaan ejaan piawai pada zaman itu menyebabkan penggunaan pelbagai ejaan oleh Shakespeare sendiri untuk perkataan yang sama telah menerukkan lagi kekeliruan tugas pentranskripsian. Cendekiawan moden mempercayai bahawa Shakespeare menyemak drama-dramanya dari semasa ke semasa, dan kekadang sendiri menghasilkan dua versi untuk dramanya.
Soneta
Soneta Shakespeare terdiri daripada koleksi 154 buah puisi yang bertema cinta, keindahan, politik dan kematian. Pengarangan puisi-puisi itu mungkin mengambil masa beberapa tahun. 152 daripada koleksi ini diterbitkan sebagai Soneta Shakespeare pada tahun 1609; yang dua lagi telah diterbitkan lebih awal pada tahun 1599 sebagai Penziariah yang Penuh Berahi (The Passionate Pilgrim).

Keadaan yang menyebabkan penerbitan soneta itu tidak jelas. Teks tahun 1609 itu didedikasikan kepada “Mr. W. H.” yang digelarkan sebagai “the only begetter” untuk koleksi puisi tersebut oleh penerbitnya, Thomas Thorpe. Tidak diketahui siapakah Mr. W. H. itu serta adakah Shakespeare mengizinkan penerbitan soneta itu walaupun banyak teori telah dikemukakan.
Puisi lain
Selain daripada soneta, Shakespeare juga mengarang banyak puisi prosa yang lebih panjang seperti Venus dan Adonis, Rogol Lucrece dan Sungutan Kekasih (A Lover’s Complaint). Puisi-puisi prosa itu mungkin dikarang untuk memperoleh naungan orang yang kaya (sebagaimana yang biasa pada zaman itu) atau kerana naungan tersebut. Umpamanya, Rogol Lucrece serta Venus dan Adonis didedikasikan kepada penaung Henry Wriothesley, Earl Southampton yang ketiga.

Terbitan sulung untuk antologi Penziarah yang Penuh Berahi telah dikeluarkan atas nama Shakespeare pada tahun 1599 walaupun beliau cuma mengarang lima puisi sahaja dalam koleksi itu. Bagaimanapun, namanya ditarik balik dalam edisi kedua.

Gaya teater
Shakespeare menghasilkan kesan yang amat besar kepada teater moden. Beliau bukan sahaja mencipta beberapa drama yang amat dikagumi dalam kesusasteraan Barat, tetapi juga mengubah teater British dengan meluaskan harapan tentang apa yang dapat dicapai melalui pembawaan watak, jalan cerita, gerak-geri, bahasa dan genre.[1] Keindahan seninya juga membantu mempertingkatkan taraf teater popular supaya dapat dikagumi, baik oleh intelektual ataupun mereka yang cuma hendak mencari hiburan.

Gaya teater tengah berubah sewaktu Shakespeare tiba di London pada hujung 1580-an atau awal 1590-an. Sebelum itu, bentuk teater British yang paling umum adalah drama kesusilaan Tudor. Pada waktu yang sama, universiti-universiti mempersembahkan drama akademik berasas drama Rom dalam bahasa Latin. Drama-drama ini menggunakan gaya puisi yang lebih tepat berbanding drama kesusilaan, tetapi bentuknya adalah lebih kaku dan lebih menumpu kepada pertuturan yang berpanjangan berbanding gerak-geri fizikal.

Sesampai hujung 1500-an, kepopularan drama kesusilaan dan akademik telah merosot apabila Zaman Pembaharuan British berkembang dan penulis drama seperti Thomas Kyd dan Christopher Marlowe bermula merevolusikan teater. Drama mereka menggabungkan drama kesusilaan dengan teater akademik untuk menghasilkah sebuah bentuk sekular yang moden.

Bentuk drama yang baru ini memperoleh ciri-ciri ketersergaman yang indah dan falsafah yang mendalam daripada drama akademik serta populisme yang lucah serta lucu daripada drama kesusilaan. Bagaimanapun, maksud jenis drama ini adalah lebih kabur dan kompleks, dan bentuk ini kurang mempedulikan alegori kesusilaan. Diilhami oleh gaya yang baru ini, Shakespeare membawa pengubahan-pengubahan teater ke tahap yang baru, dan menciptakan drama yang bukan sahaja menggemakan penonton pada tahap emosi tetapi juga menjelajah dan memperdebatkan unsur-unsur yang asas mengenai maksud kemanusiaan.

 

Alessandro Volta – the inventor of the first practical battery

Battery History
 
A battery, which is actually an electric cell, is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. Strictly speaking, a battery consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel, but the term is generally used for a single cell. A cell consists of a negative electrode; an electrolyte, which conducts ions; a separator, also an ion conductor; and a positive electrode. Continue with How Batteries Work/Battery Types

Timeline of Battery History
• 1748 – Benjamin Franklin first coined the term “battery” to describe an array of charged glass plates.
• 1780 to 1786 – Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses and provided the cornerstone of research for later inventors like Volta.
• 1800 – Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method of generating electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals, the voltic pile produced electrical current. The metallic conducting arc was used to carry the electricity over a greater distance. Alessandro Volta’s voltaic pile was the first “wet cell battery” that produced a reliable, steady current of electricity. 
• 1836 – Englishman, John F. Daniel invented the Daniel Cell that used two electrolytes: copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. The Daniel Cell was somewhat safer and less corrosive then the Volta cell. 
• 1839 – William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell, which produced electrical by combining hydrogen and oxygen.
• 1839 to 1842 – Inventors created improvements to batteries that used liquid electrodes to produce electricity. Bunsen (1842) and Grove (1839) invented the most successful.
• 1859 – French inventor, Gaston Plante developed the first practical storage lead-acid battery that could be recharged (secondary battery). This type of battery is primarily used in cars today.
• 1866 – French engineer, Georges Leclanche patented the carbon-zinc wet cell battery called the Leclanche cell. According to The History of Batteries: “George Leclanche’s original cell was assembled in a porous pot. The positive electrode consisted of crushed manganese dioxide with a little carbon mixed in. The negative pole was a zinc rod. The cathode was packed into the pot, and a carbon rod was inserted to act as a currency collector. The anode or zinc rod and the pot were then immersed in an ammonium chloride solution. The liquid acted as the electrolyte, readily seeping through the porous cup and making contact with the cathode material. The liquid acted as the electrolyte, readily seeping through the porous cup and making contact with the cathode material.”
• 1868 – Twenty thousand of Georges Leclanche’s cells were now being used with telegraph equipment.
• 1881 – J.A. Thiebaut patented the first battery with both the negative electrode and porous pot placed in a zinc cup.
• 1881 – Carl Gassner invented the first commercially successful dry cell battery (zinc-carbon cell).
• 1899 – Waldmar Jungner invented the first nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery.
• 1901 – Thomas Alva Edison invented the alkaline storage battery.
• 1949 – Lew Urry invented the small alkaline battery.
• 1954 – Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery.

Alessandro Volta
Biography of Alessandro Volta the inventor of the first practical battery in 1880.
Alkaline Battery

Lew Urry developed the small alkaline battery in 1949. The inventor was working for the Eveready Battery Co. at their research laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries last five to eight times as long as zinc-carbon cells, their predecessors. This was not a patentable invention, since Volta and others long ago created the principles of batteries.

Solar Battery
A solar battery converts the sun’s energy to electricity. In 1954, Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery. The inventors created an array of several strips of silicon (each about the size of a razorblade), placed them in sunlight, captured the free electrons and turned them into electrical current. Bell Laboratories in New York announced the prototype manufacture of a new solar battery. Bell had funded the research. The first public service trial of the Bell Solar Battery began with a telephone carrier system (Americus, Georgia) on October 4 1955.
The history of photovoltaics includes the discovery of the solar battery. PV is the technological basis for solar power.

Albert Einstein

The History of the Atomic Bomb
 
Development and History of the Atomic Bomb and The Manhattan Project
“My God, what have we done?” – Robert Lewis, the co-pilot of the Enola Gay, the B-29 that dropped the first atomic bomb.

On August 2, 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify uranium-235, which could be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known then only as “The Manhattan Project.” Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expediting research that would produce a viable atomic bomb.
The most complicated issue to be addressed in making of an atomic bomb was the production of ample amounts of “enriched” uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from uranium ore to uranium metal is 500:1. Compounding this, the one part of uranium that is finally refined from the ore is over 99% uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make the task even more difficult, the useful U-235 and nearly useless U-238 are isotopes, nearly identical in their chemical makeup. No ordinary chemical extraction method could separate them; only mechanical methods could work.
A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Harold C. Urey and his colleagues at Columbia University devised an extraction system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion, and Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes.
Next, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier, non-fissionable U-238. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission (“splitting the atom,” in layman’s terms).
Over the course of six years, from 1939 to 1945, more than $2 billion was spent during the history of the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining uranium and putting together a working atomic bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Chief among the people who unleashed the power of the atom was J. Robert Oppenheimer, who oversaw the project from conception to completion.
Finally, the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out if “The Gadget” (code-named as such during its development) was going to be the colossal dud of the century or perhaps an end to the war. It all came down to a fateful morning in midsummer, 1945.
At 5:29:45 (Mountain War Time) on July 16, 1945, in a white blaze that stretched from the basin of the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico to the still-dark skies, “The Gadget” ushered in the Atomic Age. The light of the explosion then turned orange as the atomic fireball began shooting upwards at 360 feet per second, reddening and pulsing as it cooled. The characteristic mushroom cloud of radioactive vapor materialized at 30,000 feet. Beneath the cloud, all that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass created by the heat of the reaction.
The brilliant light from the detonation pierced the early morning skies with such intensity that residents from a faraway neighboring community would swear that the sun came up twice that day. Even more astonishing is that a blind girl saw the flash 120 miles away.
Upon witnessing the explosion, its creators had mixed reactions. Isidor Rabi felt that the equilibrium in nature had been upset — as if humankind had become a threat to the world it inhabited. J. Robert Oppenheimer, though ecstatic about the success of the project, quoted a remembered fragment from the Bhagavad Gita. “I am become Death,” he said, “the destroyer of worlds.” Ken Bainbridge, the test director, told Oppenheimer, “Now we’re all sons of bitches.”
After viewing the results several participants signed petitions against loosing the monster they had created, but their protests fell on deaf ears. The Jornada del Muerto of New Mexico would not be the last site on planet Earth to experience an atomic explosion.
Scientists Who Invented the Atomic Bomb under the Manhattan Project: Robert Oppenheimer, David Bohm, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, Otto Frisch, Rudolf Peierls, Felix Bloch, Niels Bohr, Emilio Segre, James Franck, Enrico Fermi, Klaus Fuchs and Edward Teller. View a copy of the letter Einstein wrote Roosevelt that prompted the Manhattan Project.
 
Atomic Bomb Detonation at Hiroshima
As many know, the atomic bomb has been used only twice in warfare. The first was at Hiroshima. A uranium bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” (despite weighing in at over four and a half tons) was dropped on Hiroshima August 6, 1945. The Aioi Bridge, one of 81 bridges connecting the seven-branched delta of the Ota River, was the target; ground zero was set at 1,980 feet. At 0815 hours, the bomb was dropped from the Enola Gay. It missed by only 800 feet. At 0816 hours, in an instant, 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 injured by a 10-kiloton atomic explosion.
The area of total vaporization from the atomic bomb blast measured one half mile in diameter; total destruction one mile in diameter; severe blast damage as much as two miles in diameter. Within a diameter of two and a half miles, everything flammable burned. The remaining area of the blast zone was riddled with serious blazes that stretched out to the final edge at a little over three miles in diameter.
Nagasaki
On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki fell to the same treatment. This time a Plutonium bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” was dropped on the city. Though “Fat Man” missed its target by over a mile and a half, it still leveled nearly half the city. In a split second, Nagasaki’s population dropped from 422,000 to 383,000. Over 25,000 people were injured.
Japan offered to surrender on August 10, 1945.
NOTE: Physicists who have studied these two atomic explosions estimate that the bombs utilized only 1/10th of 1 percent of their respective explosive capabilities.
Byproducts of Atomic Bomb Detonations
While the explosion from an atomic bomb is deadly enough, its destructive ability doesn’t stop there. Atomic bomb fallout creates another hazard as well. The rain that follows any atomic detonation is laden with radioactive particles, and many survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts succumbed to radiation poisoning.
The atomic bomb detonation also has the hidden lethal surprise of affecting the future generations of those who live through it. Leukemia is among the greatest of afflictions that are passed on to the offspring of survivors.
While the main purpose behind the atomic bomb is obvious, there are other by-products of the use of atomic weapons. While high-altitude atomic detonations are hardly lethal, one small, high-altitude detonation can deliver a serious enough EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pulse) to scramble all things electronic, from copper wires to a computer’s CPU, within a 50-mile radius.
During the early history of The Atomic Age, it was a popular notion that one day atomic bombs would be used in mining operations and perhaps aid in the construction of another Panama Canal. Needless to say, it never came about. Instead, the military applications of atomic destruction increased. Atomic bomb tests off of the Bikini Atoll and several other sites were common until the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was introduced.
 

Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright – Inventors of the First Engined Airplane

The History of the Airplane
Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright – Inventors of the First Engined Airplane
Orville Wright (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) requested a patent application for a “flying machine” nine months before their successful flight in December 1903, which Orville Wright recorded in his diary. As part of the Wright Brothers’ systematic practice of photographing every prototype and test of their various flying machines, they had persuaded an attendant from a nearby lifesaving station to snap Orville Wright in full flight. The craft soared to an altitude of 10 feet, traveled 120 feet, and landed 12 seconds after takeoff. After making two longer flights that day, Orville and Wilbur Wright sent this telegram to their father, instructing him to “inform press.”
Earlier in 1900, Wilbur Wright wrote to French aviation pioneer Octave Chanute (1832-1910) and expressed the belief that “flight is possible to man…[and] I feel that it will soon cost me an increased amount of money if not my life”. More on the Wright Brothers’ invention of the airplane.
 

Alexander Graham Bell

In 1876, at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell invented his telephone.
 

Back to The History of the Telephone
In 1876, at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell invented his telephone. In 1877, he formed the Bell Telephone Company, and in the same year married Mabel Hubbard and embarked on a yearlong honeymoon in Europe.
Alexander Graham Bell might easily have been content with the success of his telephone invention. His many laboratory notebooks demonstrate, however, that he was driven by a genuine and rare intellectual curiosity that kept him regularly searching, striving, and wanting always to learn and to create. He would continue to test out new ideas through a long and productive life. He would explore the realm of communications as well as engage in a great variety of scientific activities involving kites, airplanes, tetrahedral structures, sheep-breeding, artificial respiration, desalinization and water distillation, and hydrofoils.
With the enormous technical and later financial success of his telephone invention, Alexander Graham Bell’s future was secure, and he was able to arrange his life so that he could devote himself to his scientific interests. Toward this end, in 1881, he used the $10,000 award for winning France’s Volta Prize to set up the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. A believer in scientific teamwork, Bell worked with two associates, his cousin Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter, at the Volta Laboratory. Their experiments soon produced such major improvements in Thomas Edison’s phonograph that it became commercially viable. After 1885, when he first visited Nova Scotia, Bell set up another laboratory there at his estate, Beinn Bhreagh (pronounced Ben Vreeah), near Baddeck, where he would assemble other teams of bright young engineers to pursue new and exciting ideas.
Among one of his first innovations after the telephone was the “photophone,” a device that enabled sound to be transmitted on a beam of light. Bell and his assistant, Charles Sumner Tainter, developed the photophone using a sensitive selenium crystal and a mirror that would vibrate in response to a sound. In 1881, they successfully sent a photophone message over 200 yards from one building to another. Bell regarded the photophone as “the greatest invention I have ever made; greater than the telephone.” Alexander Graham Bell’s invention reveals the principle upon which today’s laser and fiber optic communication systems are founded, though it would take the development of several modern technologies to realize it fully.
Over the years, Alexander Graham Bell’s curiosity would lead him to speculate on the nature of heredity, first among the deaf and later with sheep born with genetic irregularities. His sheep-breeding experiments at Beinn Bhreagh sought to increase the numbers of twin and triplet births. Bell was also willing to attempt inventing under the pressure of daily events, and in 1881 he hastily constructed an electromagnetic device called an induction balance to try and locate a bullet lodged in President Garfield after an assassin had shot him. He later improved this and produced a device called a telephone probe, which would make a telephone receiver click when it touched metal. That same year, Bell’s newborn son, Edward, died from respiratory problems, and Bell responded to that tragedy by designing a metal vacuum jacket that would facilitate breathing. This apparatus was a forerunner of the iron lung used in the 1950s to aid polio victims. In addition to inventing the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems and conducting experiments with what today are called energy recycling and alternative fuels, Bell also worked on methods of removing salt from seawater.
 
 However, these interests may be considered minor activities compared to the time and effort he put into the challenge of flight. By the 1890s, Bell had begun experimenting with propellers and kites. His work led him to apply the concept of the tetrahedron (a solid figure with four triangular faces) to kite design as well as to create a new form of architecture. In 1907, four years after the Wright Brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk, Bell formed the Aerial Experiment Association with Glenn Curtiss, William “Casey” Baldwin, Thomas Selfridge, and J.A.D. McCurdy, four young engineers whose common goal was to create airborne vehicles. By 1909, the group had produced four powered aircraft, the best of which, the Silver Dart, made the first successful powered flight in Canada on February 23, 1909. Bell spent the last decade of his life improving hydrofoil designs, and in 1919 he and Casey Baldwin built a hydrofoil that set a world water-speed record that was not broken until 1963. Months before he died, Bell told a reporter, “There cannot be mental atrophy in any person who continues to observe, to remember what he observes, and to seek answers for his unceasing hows and whys about things.

Delapan Kebohongan Seorang Ibu Dalam Hidupnya

Dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari, kita percaya bahwa kebohongan akan membuat manusia terpuruk dalam penderitaan yang mendalam, tetapi kisah ini justru sebaliknya. Dengan adanya kebohongan ini, makna sesungguhnya dari kebohongan ini justru dapat membuka mata kita dan terbebas dari penderitaan, ibarat sebuah energi yang mampu mendorong mekarnya sekuntum bunga yang paling indah di dunia.

Cerita bermula ketika aku masih kecil, aku terlahir sebagai seorang anak laki-laki di sebuah keluarga yang miskin. Bahkan untuk makan saja, seringkali kekurangan. Ketika makan, ibu sering memberikan porsi nasinya untukku. Sambil memindahkan nasi ke mangkukku, ibu berkata : “Makanlah nak, aku tidak lapar” ———- KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG PERTAMA

Ketika saya mulai tumbuh dewasa, ibu yang gigih sering meluangkan waktu senggangnya untuk pergi memancing di kolam dekat rumah, ibu berharap dari ikan hasil pancingan, ia bisa memberikan sedikit makanan bergizi untuk petumbuhan. Sepulang memancing, ibu memasak sup ikan yang segar dan mengundang selera. Sewaktu aku memakan sup ikan itu, ibu duduk di sampingku dan memakan sisa daging ikan yang masih menempel di tulang yang merupakan bekas sisa tulang ikan yang aku makan. Aku melihat ibu seperti itu, hati juga tersentuh, lalu menggunakan sumpitku dan memberikannya kepada ibuku. Tetapi ibu dengan cepat menolaknya, ia berkata : “Makanlah nak, aku tidak suka makan ikan” ———- KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KEDUA

Sekarang aku sudah masuk SMP, demi membiayai sekolah abang dan kakakku, ibu pergi ke koperasi untuk membawa sejumlah kotak korek api untuk ditempel, dan hasil tempelannya itu membuahkan sedikit uang untuk menutupi kebutuhan hidup. Di kala musim dingin tiba, aku bangun dari tempat tidurku, melihat ibu masih bertumpu pada lilin kecil dan dengan gigihnya melanjutkan pekerjaannya menempel kotak korek api. Aku berkata :”Ibu, tidurlah, udah malam, besok pagi ibu masih harus kerja.” Ibu tersenyum dan berkata :”Cepatlah tidur nak, aku tidak capek” ———- KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KETIGA

Ketika ujian tiba, ibu meminta cuti kerja supaya dapat menemaniku pergi ujian. Ketika hari sudah siang, terik matahari mulai menyinari, ibu yang tegar dan gigih menunggu aku di bawah terik matahari selama beberapa jam. Ketika bunyi lonceng berbunyi menandakan ujian sudah selesai, Ibu dengan segera menyambutku dan menuangkan teh yang sudah disiapkan dalam botol yang dingin untukku. Teh yang begitu kental tidak dapat dibandingkan dengan kasih sayang yang jauh lebih kental. Melihat ibu yang dibanjiri peluh, aku segera memberikan gelasku untuk ibu sambil menyuruhnya minum. Ibu berkata : “Minumlah nak, aku tidak haus!” ———- KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KEEMPAT

Setelah kepergian ayah karena sakit, ibu yang malang harus merangkap sebagai ayah dan ibu. Dengan berpegang pada pekerjaan dia yang dulu, dia harus membiayai kebutuhan hidup sendiri. Kehidupan keluarga kita pun semakin susah dan susah. Tiada hari tanpa penderitaan. Melihat kondisi keluarga yang semakin parah, ada seorang paman yang baik hati yang tinggal di dekat rumahku pun membantu ibuku baik masalah besar maupun masalah kecil. Tetangga yang ada di sebelah rumah melihat kehidupan kita yang begitu sengsara, seringkali menasehati ibuku untuk menikah lagi. Tetapi ibu yang memang keras kepala tidak mengindahkan nasehat mereka, ibu berkata : “Saya tidak butuh cinta” ———-KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KELIMA

Setelah aku, kakakku dan abangku semuanya sudah tamat dari sekolah dan bekerja, ibu yang sudah tua sudah waktunya pensiun. Tetapi ibu tidak mau, ia rela untuk pergi ke pasar setiap pagi untuk jualan sedikit sayur untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Kakakku dan abangku yang bekerja di luar kota sering mengirimkan sedikit uang untuk membantu memenuhi kebutuhan ibu, tetapi ibu bersikukuh tidak mau menerima uang tersebut. Malahan mengirim balik uang tersebut. Ibu berkata : “Saya punya duit” ———-KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KEENAM

Setelah lulus dari S1, aku pun melanjutkan studi ke S2 dan kemudian memperoleh gelar master di sebuah universitas ternama di Amerika berkat sebuah beasiswa di sebuah perusahaan. Akhirnya aku pun bekerja di perusahaan itu. Dengan gaji yang lumayan tinggi, aku bermaksud membawa ibuku untuk menikmati hidup di Amerika. Tetapi ibu yang baik hati, bermaksud tidak mau merepotkan anaknya, ia berkata kepadaku “Aku tidak terbiasa” ———-KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KETUJUH

Setelah memasuki usianya yang tua, ibu terkena penyakit kanker lambung, harus dirawat di rumah sakit, aku yang berada jauh di seberang samudra atlantik langsung segera pulang untuk menjenguk ibunda tercinta. Aku melihat ibu yang terbaring lemah di ranjangnya setelah menjalani operasi. Ibu yang keliatan sangat tua, menatap aku dengan penuh kerinduan. Walaupun senyum yang tersebar di wajahnya terkesan agak kaku karena sakit yang ditahannya. Terlihat dengan jelas betapa penyakit itu menjamahi tubuh ibuku sehingga ibuku terlihat lemah dan kurus kering. Aku sambil menatap ibuku sambil berlinang air mata. Hatiku perih, sakit sekali melihat ibuku dalam kondisi seperti ini. Tetapi ibu dengan tegarnya berkata : “Jangan menangis anakku, aku tidak kesakitan” ———-KEBOHONGAN IBU YANG KEDELAPAN.

Setelah mengucapkan kebohongannya yang kedelapan, ibuku tercinta menutup matanya untuk yang terakhir kalinya.

Dari cerita di atas, saya percaya teman-teman sekalian pasti merasa tersentuh dan ingin sekali mengucapkan : ” Terima kasih ibu ! ” Coba dipikir-pikir teman, sudah berapa lamakah kita tidak menelepon ayah ibu kita? Sudah berapa lamakah kita tidak menghabiskan waktu kita untuk berbincang dengan ayah ibu kita? Di tengah-tengah aktivitas kita yang padat ini, kita selalu mempunyai beribu-ribu alasan untuk meninggalkan ayah ibu kita yang kesepian. Kita selalu lupa akan ayah dan ibu yang ada di rumah.
Jika dibandingkan dengan pacar kita, kita pasti lebih peduli dengan pacar kita. Buktinya, kita selalu cemas akan kabar pacar kita, cemas apakah dia sudah makan atau belum, cemas apakah dia bahagia bila di samping kita. Namun, apakah kita semua pernah mencemaskan kabar dari ortu kita? Cemas apakah ortu kita sudah makan atau belum? Cemas apakah ortu kita sudah bahagia atau belum? Apakah ini benar? Kalau ya, coba kita renungkan kembali lagi. Di waktu kita masih mempunyai kesempatan untuk membalas budi ortu kita, lakukanlah yang terbaik. Jangan sampai ada kata “MENYESAL” di kemudian hari.

Penemuan

A
Adhesives/Glue
Around 1750, the first glue patent was issued in Britain for a glue made from fish.
 

Adhesives Tape
Scotch Tape oe cellophane tape was invented in 1930 by banjo playing 3M engineer Richard Drew.

Aerosol Spray Cans
The concept of an aerosol originated as early as 1790.

Air Bags
In 1973, the General Motors research team invented the first car safety air bags that were first offered in the 1973 model Chevrolet as an option

Air Brakes
George Westinghouse invented air brakes in 1868.
 

Air Ships
The history behind balloons, blimps, dirigibles and zeppelins.

Air Conditioning
Willis Carrier brought us the comfort zone with air conditioning.

Airplane/Aviation – Aeroplane
Wilbur and Orville Wright invented the airplane, which they patented as a “flying machine.” Learn about other aviation related innovations including the history of seaplanes, flight suits, anti-gravity suits, ejection seats, airports and different airlines.
 

Alternating Current
Charles Proteus Steinmetz developed theories on alternating current that allowed for the rapid expansion of the electric power industry.
 

Alternative Energy
A list of articles related to the invention and the history of alternative, earth-friendly energy sources.
 

Altimeter
An instrument which measures vertical distance with respect to a reference level.
 

Aluminum Foil
The first mass-produced and widely used metal foil was made from tin. Tin foil was replaced by aluminum foil in 1910.
 

Aluminum Manufacturing Process
Charles Martin Hall discovered the electrolytic method of producing aluminum cheaply and brought the metal into wide commercial use.
 

Ambulance History
The concept of ambulance service started in Europe with the Knights of St. John.
 

Anemometer
In 1450, Leon Battista Alberti, the Italian artist and architect, invented the first mechanical anemometer. The anemometer is a device that measures wind speed.
 

Answering Machines
The history of answering machines.

Apple Computers
The Apple Lisa was the first home computer with a GUI or graphical user interface. Learn about the history of the Apple Macintosh, the most famous Apple home computer.

Arc Transmitter
Danish engineer, Valdemar Poulsen invented the arc transmitter in 1902. The arc transmitter, contrary to all previous types of radio transmitters in history, generated continuous radio waves.

Archimedes Screw
An archimedes screw is a machine for raising water, invented by the ancient Greek scientist and mathematician Archimedes.
 

Assembly Line
Eli Olds invented the basic concept of the assembly line and Henry Ford improved it.

Artificial Heart
Willem Kolff invented both the first artificial heart and the first artificial kidney dialysis machine. Read about the history of artificial hearts.

History of Aspirin
In 1829, scientists discovered that it was the compound called salicin in willow plants, which is responsible for pain relief. But it was father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, who first discovered the pain relieving properties of the willow plant in the 5th century, B.C.

AstroTurf
James Faria and Robert Wright of Monsanto Industries co-invented AstroTurf in 1965.

ATM  – Automatic Teller Machines
The history of automated teller machines (ATM).

Atomic Bomb
In 1939, Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the Manhattan Project, whose research produced the first atomic bomb.
 

Audio Tape Recording
Marvin Camras invented the method and means of magnetic recording. The history of sound recording.
 

Automated Electrified Monorail Systems
Ronald Riley invented the automated electrified monorail system.
 

Automatic Doors
Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt invented the sliding automatic door in 1954.
 

Automobile
The history of the automobile spans over one hundred years — the famous early car models, view timelines of automotive development and discover who made the first gasoline powered car.

B

Bakelite:
Leo Hendrik Baekeland patented a “Method of Making Insoluble Products of Phenol and Formaldehyde.” Setting out to make an insulator, he invented the first true plastic and transformed the world.

Ball Point Pens
The ball-point pen was invented by Ladislo Biro in 1938. A patent battle erupted; learn how Parker and Bic won the war.
 

Ballistic Missile
A ballistic missile can be any of a variety of weapons systems that deliver explosive warheads to their targets by means of rocket propulsion.
 

Balloons/Blimps
The history and patents behind airships, balloons, blimps, dirigibles and zeppelins.
 

Balloons (Toy)
The first rubber balloons were made in 1824 by Professor Michael Faraday for use in his experiments with hydrogen.
 

Band-Aid
Band-Aid® is the trademarked name for the 1920 invention belonging to Earle Dickson.
 

Bar Codes
The first patents for bar code were issued to Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7, 1952.

Barbed Wire
Don’t fence me in — all about the invention, development, and use of barbed wire.
 

Barbie Doll
The Barbie doll was invented in 1959 by Ruth Handler.
 

Barometer
The barometer was invented by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643.
 

Baseball/Baseball Equipment
Baseball was invented by Alexander Cartwright. The history of baseball bats.
 

BASIC
BASIC (Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was invented in 1964 by John Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.
 

Basketball
James Naismith invented and named the game of basketball in 1891.
 

Bathroom Related Innovations
The history of ancient and modern plumbing from around the world – baths, toilets, water closets and sewage systems.
 

Battery
2000 was the 201th anniversary of the invention of the battery by Alessandro Volta.
 

Beauty Innovations
The history of hair dryers, ironing curlers and other beauty appliances. The history of cosmetics and hair products.
 

Beds
The history of waterbeds, murphy beds and other kinds of beds. Lie down and read about the patents and ihistory behind beds.
 

Beer
We can trace the beginning of beer far back beyond the dawn of recorded time. Apparently, beer was the first alcoholic beverage known to civilization.
 

Blenders
Stephen Poplawski invented the kitchen blender.
 

Bic Pens
Learn about the history of Bic pens and other writing instruments.
 

Bicycle
The history of that foot-powered riding machine.
 

Bifocals
Eye glasses that see near and far.
 

Bikini
The bikini was invented in 1946 and named after the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, the site of the first atomic bomb testing. The designers of the bikini were two Frenchmen named Jacques Heim and Louis Reard.
 

Bingo
“Bingo” originated from a game called Beano.
 

Biofilters/Biofiltration
The first proposition to use biological methods to treat odorous compounds came as early as 1923.
 

Blood Bank
Dr. Charles Richard Drew was the first person to develop the blood bank.
 

Blue Jeans
Levi Strauss invented blue jeans.
 

Board Games
Puzzle over the history of board games and other brain teasers.
 

Boilers
Babcock and Wilcox co-invented the water tube steam boiler, a safer and more efficient boiler.
 

Boomerang
The history of the boomerang and complete instructions on how to make your own.
 

Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge
In 1849, the Bourdon tube pressure gauge was patented by Eugene Bourdon.
 

Bra
It’s 1913 and Mary Phelps Jacob’s corset was not the undergarment to wear under her new shear evening gown.
 

Braces – Dental
The history of dental braces or the science of Orthodontics is complex, many different patents helped to create braces as we know them today.
 

Braille
Louis Braille invented braille printing.
 

Brush – Hair
Brushes were used as early as 2,500,000 years ago.
 

Bubble Gum
The invention and history of chewing gum, bubble gum, gum wrappers, gum tins and bubble gum machines.

C
Cabbage Patch Kids
In 1976, Xavier Roberts invented ‘Little Person’ dolls, the first Cabbage Patch Kids.
 

Calendars/Clocks
Learn about the invention of early clocks, calendars, the quartz watch, timekeeping devices and the science of time.
 

Calcium Carbide Process
Thomas Leopold Willson invented a process for Calcium Carbide.
 

Calculators
Timelines covering calculator patents since 1917. Learn about the history of Texas Instruments, the origins of the electronic calculator, the hand-held calculator and more.
 

Camera
The history of the camera – Camera Obscura, photography, the significant processes of photography, and who invented the polaroid and photographic film.

The history of candy.
Carborundum
Edward Goodrich Acheson invented carborundum. Carborundum is the hardest man-made surface and was needed to bring about the industrial age.

Cardiac Pacemaker
Wilson Greatbatch invented an implantable cardiac pacemaker. Study the history of other cardiac devices.
Cash Register
James Ritty invented what was nicknamed the “Incorruptible Cashier” or the cash register.
 

Cassette Tape
In 1963, the Philips company became the first company to demonstrate the compact audio cassette.
 

Cat Eyes
Percy Shaw patented his road-safety invention called cat eyes, in 1934 when he was only 23.
 

Catheter
Thomas Fogarty invented the embolectomy balloon catheter. Betty Rozier and Lisa Vallino co-invented the intravenous catheter shield. Ingemar Henry Lundquist invented the over the wire balloon catheter that is used in the majority of angioplasty procedures in the world.
 

Cathode Ray Tube
Electronic television is based on the invention of the cathode ray tube, which is the picture tube found in modern television sets.
 

CAT-Scans
Robert Ledley invented “diagnostic X-Ray systems”, known as CAT-Scans.
 

CCD
George Smith and Willard Boyle received a patent for Charge-Coupled Devices or CCDs.

Cellophane
Cellophane was invented by Jacques Brandenberger in 1908.

Chinese Inventions
Learn about ancient Chinese technology and the history of Chinese inventions. Find lesson plans for teachers. Learn about the kite, chopsticks, umbrellas, gunpowder, firecrackers, the steelyard, abacus, cloisonné, ceramics, papermaking and more.

Clocks
Learn about the invention of early clocks, calendars, the quartz watch, timekeeping devices and time measurement.
 

Coat Hangers
Today’s wire coat hanger was inspired by a clothes hook patented in 1869 by O. A. North.
 

Coca-Cola
“Coca-Cola” was invented by Dr. John Pemberton in 1886.

Cold Fusion Energy
Viktor Schauberger was the “father of cold fusion energy” and the designer of the first non-energy consuming “flying disc”.
 

Color Television
Color television was by no means a new idea, a German patent in 1904 contained the earliest proposal – RCA color television system – Living Color.

Combustion Engine – Diesel
Rudolf Diesel was the father of the “diesel-fueled” internal combustion engine or diesel engine.

Compact Disk
James Russell invented the compact disc in 1965. Russell was granted a total of 22 patents for various elements of his system.
 

Compass
The history of the magnetic compass, gyroscope compass, and the biography of Elmer Sperry.
 

Computers
An index to famous persons in the computer business, over twenty-six fully illustrated features cover the history of computers from 1936 until today.

Computer game
This history is more fun than a joy stick. Steve Russell invented the computer game called “SpaceWar.” Nolan Bushnell invented the game called “Pong.”
 

Computerized Banking
ERMA began as a project for the Bank of America in an effort to computerize the banking industry.
 

Concrete
Concrete was invented by Joseph Monier.

Cortisone
Percy Lavon Julian synthesized the medicines physostigmine for glaucoma and cortisone. Lewis Sarett invented a synthetic version of the hormone cortisone.
 

Cosmetics
The history of cosmetics and hair products.
Cotton (Naturally Colored)
Sally Fox invented naturally colored cotton.

Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin on March 14, 1794. The cotton gin is a machine that separates seeds, hulls and other unwanted materials from cotton after it has been picked.

Crash Test Dummies
GM developed this test device nearly 20 years ago, to provide a biofidelic measurement tool — a crash dummy that behaves very similarly to human beings.
 

Crayons
Crayon history – from the Crayola Company whose founders invented the first crayon.

Cray Supercomputer
Seymour Cray was the inventor of the Cray Supercomputer.

Crossword Puzzles
The crossword puzzle was invented by Arthur Wynne.
 

Cruise Control
Unstopped by his blindness, Ralph Teetor invented cruise control.
 

Cuisinart
Carl Sontheimer invented the Cuisinart.

Cyclotron
Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron, a device that greatly increased the speed

D

Dewar Flask
Sir James Dewar invented the Dewar flask, the first thermos.

Diabetes Testing Kits
Helen Free received a patent for a home diabetes test. The history of insulin.
 

Dialysis Machine
Willem Kolff invented the artificial kidney dialysis machine. The history of kidney innovations.
 

Diapers (Disposable)
The convenient disposable diaper was invented by New Yorker Marion Donovan in 1950.
 

Diesel
Rudolf Diesel was the inventor of the diesel-fueled internal combustion engine.
 
Dishwasher
Josephine Cochran invented the dishwasher in 1886.
 

Disposable Cell Phone
Randice-Lisa Altschul invented the world’s first disposable cell phone.
 

Diving Equipment
In the 16th century, barrels were used as primitive diving bells, and for the first time divers could travel underwater with more than one breath of air, but not much more than one.

Drinking Straws
In 1888, Marvin Stone patented the spiral winding process to manufacture the first paper drinking straws.
 

Drive-In
Richard Hollingshead patented and opened the first drive-in theater.
 

Dr Pepper
In 1885, Charles Aderton invented the Dr Pepper soft drink. The history of soft drinks.
 

Dry Ice
Dry ice was discovered not invented – the name was trademarked by the first company to sell dry ice.